Corona Virus Disease 2019

Diah Handayani, Dwi Rendra Hadi, Fathiyah Isbaniah, Erlina Burhan, Heidy Agustin


Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new name given by World Health Organization (WHO) of 2019 novel corona virus infection, reported at the end of 2019 from Wuhan, Cina. The spread of infection occurs rapidly and creates a new pandemic threat. Etiology of COVID-19 was identified in 10 January 2020, a betacorona virus, similar with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS CoV). The clue diagnosis pathway of COVID-19 were history of travel from Wuhan or others infected countries within 14 days prior, and symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) or lower respiratory infection (pneumonia) with the result of real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) specific for COVID-19. The WHO classified COVID-19 into suspect case, probable case and confirmed case. Indonesia Ministry of Health classified the case into in monitoring (ODP), patient under surveillance (PDP), people without symptom (OTG) and confirmed case. Specimens for detection COVID-19 could be acquired from nasal and nasopharynx swab, sputum and another lower respiratory aspirate including broncoalveolar lavage (BAL). Management of COVID-19 consist of isolation and infection control, supportive treatment according to the disease severity which could be mild (acute respiratory infection) to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Disease transmission is via droplets and contact with droplets. Currently, there is no antiviral and vaccine. Prevention is very important for this disease by limitation of transmission, identification and isolate patients. Prognosis is determined by severity of the disease and patient comorbidity. Information about this novel disease remains very few, studies are still ongoing and is needing further research to fight with this new virus. (J Respir Indo. 2020; 40(2): 120-30)


corona virus disease, pandemic, SARS-CoV-2

Full Text:



Ceraolo C, Giorgi FM. Phylogenomic analysis of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus. bioRxiv. 2020.

Zhou P, Yang X-L, Wang X-G, Hu B, Zhang L, Zhang W, et al. Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin. bioRxiv. 2020.

Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses. 2020;12.

Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Krüger N, Müller M, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-1 coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells. bioRxiv. 2020.

World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus(2019-nCoV) Situation Report - 25. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020.

World Health Organization. Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 68. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet 2020.

Nguyen DD, Gao K, Wang R, Wei G. Machine intelligence design of 2019-nCoV drugs. bioRxiv. 2020.

Liu T, Hu J, Kang M, Lin L, Zhong H, Xiao J, et al. Transmission dynamics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). bioRxiv. 2020.

Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. The Lancet 2020.

De Salazar PM, Niehus R, Taylor A, Buckee CO, Lipsitch M. Using predicted imports of 2019-nCoV cases to determine locations that may not be identifying all imported cases. 2020.

World Health Organization. WHO Global Surveillance for human infection with novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Isbaniah F, Saputro DD, Sitompul PA, Manalu R, Setyawaty V, Subangkit, et al. Pedoman Kesiapsiagaan Menghadapi Infeksi Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2020.

Isbaniah F, Saputro DD, Sitompul PA, Susilo A, Wihastuti R, Manalu R, et al. Pedoman Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Coronavirus Disesase (Covid-19). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2020.

World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama. 2020.

World Health Organization. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection is suspected. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Chang D, Lin M, Wei L, Xie L, Zhu G, Dela Cruz CS, et al. Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Novel Coronavirus Infections Involving 13 Patients Outside Wuhan, China. Jama. 2020.

World Health Organization. Infection Prevention and Control During Health Care When Novel Coronavirus (Ncov) Infection is Suspected. Geneva: WHO, 2020.

Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. The Lancet 2020.

Richardson P, Griffin I, Tucker C, Smith D, Oechsle O, Phelan A, et al. Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. Lancet. 2020.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research. 2020.

Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Health Care Settings. American Journal of Infection Control 2019;35:S65-S164.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia


SINTA Garuda Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia One Search (IOS) Crossref

ROAD-ISSN Dimensions Google Scholar 


Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia
pISSN: 0853-7704 - eISSN: 2620-3162
Address: Jalan Cipinang Bunder No. 19, Cipinang, Pulogadung, Jakarta Timur, DKI Jakarta 13240, Indonesia
Phone: +62-21-2247-4845

An official publication by
the Indonesian Society of Respirology (ISR)

Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License