Respiratory Failure in Pneumonia with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Novita Maulidiyah, Sri Indah Indriani, Prasenohadi Prasenohadi, Menaldi Rasmin


The annual incidence rate of KAD is estimated to be between 4.6 and 8 per 1000 patients with diabetes. Based on the results of the physical examination, the patient was diagnosed as pneumonia with KAD. The mortality rate for community pneumonia on outpatients was 2%, inpatients was 5-20%, more so in patients in intensive care that was more than 50%. The problem in the patient is pneumonia. Resulting in pulmonary dysfunction which causes overload. Infections that can increase morbidity and mortality may be associated with Streptococcus infection (group B, S, pneumonia), Legionella and viral infections (influenza). The most common infections are pneumonia and urinary tract infections which account for between 30% and 50% of cases. Therefore, the choice of empiric antimicrobial therapy in diabetic patients with evidence of staphylococcal pneumonia (consistent with sputum smear results or associated soft tissue infection) should be guided by the prevalence of MRSA in the associated institutions. Respiratory failure is a complication of KAD and increases the mortality rate. and morbidity. Based on the high nasal carriage rate, there is an increased risk of staphylococcal pneumonia infection in diabetic patients. Community pneumonia is acute inflammation due to infection of the lung parenchyma acquired in the community. (J Respir Indo 2018; 38(1): 57-63)


respiratory failure, pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis

Full Text:



Sumantri S. Pendekatan diagnostik dan tatalaksana ketoasidosis diabetikum. Jakarta: Internal Medicine Department; 2009. p.1-30.

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia. Pneumonia komunitas. Pedoman diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan di Indonesia. Balai Penerbit FKUI. Jakarta. 2014. p.1-3

Hariadi S, Amin M, Pradjoko I, Koesenoprodjo W. Gagal napas. In: Palilingan JF. Buku ajar paru. Surabaya: Departemen Pulmonologi dan Ilmu Kedokteran Respirasi FK UNAIR; 2010. p.203-6

Gotera W, Budiyasa DGA. Penatalaksanaan ketoasidosis diabetik (KAD), Jurnal Penyakit Dalam. 2011:11:126-128

Ljubic S, Balachandran A, et al. Pulmonary infection in diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia Croatica. 2005;33:115-24.

Vracko R, Thoring D, Huang TW. Basal lamina of alveolar epithelium and capillaries. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979:973-83.

Lipsky BA, Pecoraro RE, Chen MS, et al. Factors affecting staphylococcal colonization among NIDDM outpatient. Diabetes Care. 1987:403-9.

Navarro J, Rainisio M, Harms HK, et al. Factors associated with poor pulmonary function: cross sectional analysis of data fro ERCF. Eur Respir J. 2001:298-305.

Boyko EJ, Lipsky BA, Sandoval R, et al. NIDDM and and prevalence of nasal S.aureus colonization. Diabetes care. 1989:189-93.

Iwahara T, Ichiyama S, Nada T, et al. Clinical and epidemiological investigations of nosocomial pulmonary infections caused by MRSA. Chest. 1994:826-31.

Konstantinov NK, Rohrscheib M, Agaba EI. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis. World J Diabetes. 2015;6:1009-23.

Roussos C, Koutsoukou A. Respiratory failure. Eur Respir J. 2003;22:1-5



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia


SINTA Garuda Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia One Search (IOS) Crossref

ROAD-ISSN Dimensions Google Scholar 


Jurnal Respirologi Indonesia
pISSN: 0853-7704 - eISSN: 2620-3162
Address: Jalan Cipinang Bunder No. 19, Cipinang, Pulogadung, Jakarta Timur, DKI Jakarta 13240, Indonesia
Phone: +62-21-2247-4845

An official publication by
the Indonesian Society of Respirology (ISR)

Creative Commons License
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License